The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus or Felis catus) is a small, typically hairy and carnivorous mammal. They are often called domestic cats when they are kept as pets or simply cats when it is not necessary to distinguish them from other cats and felines. Humans often evaluate them for their company and their ability to capture insects. There are over seventy breeds of cats recognized by various cat records.
Cats are similar in anatomy to other cats, with a strong and flexible body, ready reflexes, sharp retractable claws and teeth adapted to kill small prey. The senses of the cat are inserted in a twilight and predator ecological nodule. Cats may hear sounds that are too weak or too noisy for human ears, such as those produced by rats and other small animals. They can see in the darkness closely. Like most other mammals, cats have a lower color vision and a better sense of smell than humans. Cats, even if they are solitary hunters, are a social species and communication between cats includes the use of a variety of vocalizations (meow, ronroneas, trills, whistles, grunts and moans) and feline pheromones and types of specific language of body for cats
Cats have a high reproduction rate. Under controlled reproduction, they can be created and seen as registered breeding animals, recreation known as cat fantasy. As a result of the inability to control domestic breeding by catching, as well as abandoned domestic animals, there is a large number of street cats in the world that need control over the population. In certain areas outside the indigenous cats range, it has added, as well as the destruction of habitats and other factors, to expel many bird species. Cats have been known to have cat species implemented in specific regions and may have contributed to the eradication of the isolated populations of the island. The most responsible cats are believed to have expelled 33 species of birds and that other suitable sites that are not suitable for the species’s attempt to reintroduce wild cats are short and short.
Since cats were discussed in ancient Egypt, they are believed to have been inland, but there may have been domestic cases since the Neolithic about 9,500 years ago (7,500 BC). A genetic study in 2007 concluded that all cats return home from the neighboring Wildcat cats, with about 8,000 BC in the Middle East. The 2016 study found that China’s leopard cells arrived independently around 5,500 BC, although this line of cats does not go anywhere in the populations of today’s countries. The 2017 study confirmed that domestic cats were originally the extract of oriental farmers in about 9000 years ago.
As a 2007 study, cats are the most popular pets in the United States for the number of pets they own, behind freshwater fish. In a study in 2010, they were the third most popular pet in the UK, after fish and dogs, with around 8 million properties.
It is believed that the domestic cat has evolved from the wildcat of the Near East, whose extension covers vast portions of the Middle East to the west to the Atlantic coast of Africa. Between 70,000 and 100,000 years ago, the animal gave birth to the genetic lineage that eventually produced all domestic cats, having separated from the wildcat of the Near East around 8,000 BC in the Middle East.
Felines are a rapidly evolving family of mammals that share a common ancestor only 10-15 million years ago and include lions, tigers, pumas and many others. Within this family, domestic cats (Felis catus) are part of the genus Felis, which is a group of small cats that contains about seven species (according to the classification scheme). The members of the genus are found all over the world and include the jungle cat (Felis chaus) of Southeast Asia, the European wild cat (F. silvestris silvestris), the African wild cat (F. Lybica s.), Chinese mountain cat (F. bieti) and the Arabian sand cat (F. margarita), among others.
The city cat is classified as Felis Catus by Carl Linnaeus in a tenth edition of its Systema Naturae, published in 1758. Due to modern phylogenetics, domestic cats generally considered as other subspecies of wild cat, silvestris F .. This has given mixed use of terms, as the yard cat called by its name, Felis silvestris Catus. The International Commission is the zoological nomenclature of the Wildcats named silvestris F. The most commonly used name for cat is F. catus. Sometimes the city cat Felis domesticus was appointed as proposed by the German naturalist J.C.P. Erxleben in 1777, but non-taxonomic names are rarely used in science literature. Once there was a black population of cats like Felis dawn of Transcaucasus (Satunin 1904), but some of the population is now considered to be the domestic cat.
All cats of this genus are commonly known to live about 6-7 million years ago in the East East (the Middle East). The correct relationships within the Felidae are still uncertain, for example. The Chinese mountain cat is sometimes classified (under the name Felis silvestris bieti) as a species in the category of wildlife, such as the diversity of North Africa F. s. lybica.
Compared to dogs, cats did not have major changes during the domestic process, since the shape and behavior of domestic cats differ from the wild cats and the domestic cats that they can perfectly live in the wild. Inland cats are often presented with F. catus wild worm populations, which produce hybrids like a Kellas cat. This limited evolution in domestication means that there may be hybridization with many other feeds, especially Asian leopard cats. Natural beings and natural characteristics of wildcat may be due to domestic as a pets. These characteristics include small numbers, social nature, clear body language, fun love and reasonably high information. 12-17 There may be a tendency of yesterday in many small light species towards docility.
Cats have mutual or common relations with humans. Two catalysts are given on how cats have been consumed. In one person, cats suffered deliberate cats in an artificial selection process because they were useful pest predators. This is being criticized because it can not be readable, because the remuneration of such an effort could be too small; In general, orders are not made and while they eat rodents, other species like a grandmother or roots can better control those pests. The alternative idea is that people were catching cats simply and gradually drifted from their wild relatives gradually through natural selection, adapting to hunting animals around men in cities and villages.
Domestic cats are similar in size to the other members of the Felis genus, generally weighing between 4 and 5 kg (9 and 10 lb). Some breeds, such as Maine Coon, can sometimes exceed 11 kg (24 lb). On the contrary, very small cats, less than 2 kg (4 lb), have been reported. The world record for the biggest cat is 21 kg (50 lb). The smallest adult cat that was officially registered weighed about 1 kg (2 lb). Wild cats tend to be lighter since they have more limited access to food than domestic cats. In the Boston area, the average feral adult male will weigh 4 kg (9 lb) and the average feral females will be 3 kg (7 lb). Cats average 23-25 cm (9-10 in) tall and 46 cm (18 in) long head / body (males are larger than females), with tails that average 30 cm (12 in) ) of length.
Cats have external cervical, like almost all mammals; 13 thoracic vertebrae (people have 12 people); seven lumbar vertebrates (there are five people); Most of the mammals (five people by humans) are sacred sacraments; and a variable number of vertebrae flow in the tail (that people keep up to five vertebrae caudal, each other in coccyx internal). 11 The additional lumbar and thoracic vertebrates are responsible for the mobility and flexibility of the cat’s spine. There are 13 rows, shoulders and pelvis attached to the column. : 16 Unlike the army of the people, the chalk’s initial limbs are attached to the shoulder at the mouth of the skeletal to float freely, allowing them to wear their bodies through a space that can fit in the head.
The skull cat is unusual among mammals with very large eye sockets and a powerful and specialized gamble. 35 On the pier, big cats are adapted to kill prey and torn flesh. When a prey dominates, a cat that is a deadly bite in the neck with its two long fangs, interrupts between two vertebrates of fangs and stomachs in the spinal cord, causing the paralysis to change and to die. Compared to other felines, domestic cats are closely spaced with canine teeth, which are adapted to their best small rodent shrubs with small vertebrae. The premolar and first molar combine the fleshy addition on each side of the mouth, which is effectively cut with the flesh into small pieces, like a pair of pair of scissors. These are essential food because small molars can not chew food cats effectively and cats are mostly unable to chew. 37 While cats tend to have better teeth than most people, usually the lowest density shade density, saline solution most dangerous, keeping smaller food particles between the teeth and most sugar-free foods, is less likely to fall due to loss of casual teeth and infection.
Cats, like dogs, are digitized. They walked straight on the toes, with bones of the legs forming the bottom of the foot visible. Cats can walk precisely because they only taste, like all cats; that is, they will put each message strip (almost) directly in the printing of relative processes, minimizing noise and visible bands. This also provides a foundation for your eels when they go to rough terrain. Unlike most mammals, when cats are walking, they use sharp “wrapping”; That is, they move both feet on one side of the body before the legs on the other. This feature is divided into camels and giraffe. As speed moves at a trot, cat cats appear to be “transnational” sour, like most other mammals (and many other terrestrial animals, such as lizards): crossing the sides in crosses at the same time.
Like almost all members of felids, cats are infectious and recurrent flu. On foot, the crops are thrown on the skin and on the sheet in the pockets of the toe. This keeps the claws abruptly, spending the wear on the ground and allowing chases. Generally, the hugs on the front legs are sharper than those on the hind legs. Cats can voluntarily expand their pants in one or more boxes. They can spread their crustaceans in hunting or self-protection, climbing, swinging or pulling extra on soft surfaces. Most cats have five hooks on the front legs and four on the back. The fifth front claw (the dewclaw) is close to the other claws. This is closer to a sixth “finger”. This special feature of the front panels, inside the cauliflower, is the wing of the carpus, also found cats and canes of large dogs. It has no function in the normal race, but it is considered to be a fake device when it is jumping. Some captures are prone to polydactyly (extra fingers and claws). These are particularly common along the northeast coast of North America.
Cats have familiar and easy cats for animals, and their physiology have been studied; In general, there are other carnivorous mammals, but it shows some unusual characteristics, the cats decline of the species that live on the desert is likely to be. For example, cats can tolerate high-temperature temperatures: people often feel uncomfortable when the skin temperature is about 100 ° F (38 ° C), but cats do not show discomfort until the skin reaches 52 ° C (126 ° F)): 46 and a temperature of up to 56 ° C (133 ° F) can be tolerated if they have access to water.
Normal physiological values:330
Body temperature 38.6 °C (101.5 °F)
Heart rate 120–140 beats per minute
Breathing rate 16–40 breaths per minute
Cats avoid heat, reducing blood flow to the skin and lose heat evaporating through the mouth. Cats have a minimal ability to sweat, with glands located mainly in their cushion, and are not necessary for heat relief, but at very high temperatures (but can be odor when forced). The body temperature of the cat does not differ during the day; This is part of a general lack of rhythmic relationships and may show its tendency to be active during the day and night. Children are cautiously proportional and their urine is highly concentrated, both adaptations to allow cats to keep as much water as possible. Your kidneys are so effective, you can live on a diet that contains only meat, without extra water and can be rehydrated, even with drinking water from the sea. While domestic cats swim, they are usually reluctant to add water and result in rapid consumption.
Cats are obligatory carnivores: their physiology has evolved to process meat efficiently and they have difficulty digesting plant matter. Unlike omnivores, such as mice, which require only about 4% protein in their diet, about 20% of a cat’s diet should be protein. The gastrointestinal tract of a cat is adapted to meat consumption, is much smaller than that of omnivores and has low levels of various digestive enzymes necessary to digest carbohydrates. These traits severely limit the cat’s ability to digest and use plant-derived nutrients as well as certain fatty acids. Despite cat-oriented physiology, various vegan or vegetarian cat foods have been marketed that are supplemented with taurine and other chemically synthesized nutrients in an attempt to produce a complete diet. However, some of these products still do not provide all the nutrients cats need, and diets that do not contain animal products present the risk of causing serious nutritional deficiencies. However, veterinarians in the United States have expressed concern that many domestic cats are overworked.
Cats eat grass occasionally. One suggested explanation is that cats use grass as a source of folic acid. Another is that it is used to provide dietary fiber, helping the cat to defecate more easily and expel parasites and other harmful materials through feces and vomiting.
Cats are unusually dependent on the continuous supply of arginine platinum, and an arginine diet does not cause marked weight loss and can quickly become fatal. Arginine is a necessary additive in cat food because cats have a low degree of aminotransferase and pyrroline-5-carboxylate enzymes that are responsible for synthesis of ornithine and citrulline in the small intestine. Typically, Citrulline goes into the kidneys to produce arginine, but due to the lack of cats in its enzymes, citrulline does not produce sufficient amounts to produce arginine. Argonaine is essential in the urea cycle to convert the toxic ammonia component into urea that can be grown in urine. Due to its crucial role, arginine deficiency in an ammonia is caused by toxic and as a result of hyperammonemia. Symptoms of hyperammonemia include lists, vomiting, ataxia, and hyperesthesia, and it may be serious enough to die and eat in days if diet cats are non-arginine. These symptoms are rapidly starting as all other amino acids still have arginine, the body that produces huge amounts of ammonia that will grow very quickly without any excretion type
Another unusual feature is that the cat can not be produced, and a deficiency in this essential amino acid causes macro degradation, where the cat’s retinant slowly reveals and causes unwanted blindness. This is the result of the hepatic activity of the decarboxylase of cystinosulfinic acid to be low in humans. This limits the ability of cats for taurine that their precursor requires the eition and amino acids of cysteine, which necessitates the production of an inexperienced turbine for normal function. Due to deficiencies in the turbine, there is a compensatory function of the feline cardiovascular and reproductive systems. These abnormalities can develop in the central nervous system, as well as the detection of the retina.
To use the essential niacin vitamin to use a cat, tryptophan is necessary for conversion purposes. However, due to a competitive way with Acetic acid A (acetyl-CoA), niacin may be deficient and require supplements. This process occurs when the overactive enzyme, the cycinic carboxylase, converts the cycinic acid precursor of vitamin B6 into the alternate acetyl-CoA compound, instead of converting the quinoline to nicotinic acid (niacin) mononucleotide. Niacin is needed in cats as it is compatible with the enzyme function. If niacin is deficient in the diet, it can cause anorexia, weight loss and body temperature to increase.
Vitamin A is a prerequisite in the cat for retinal and reproductive health. Vitamin A is considered a fat-soluble vitamin and seems necessary for cat food. Typically, vitamin A is a conversion of beta-carotene in the relationship (especially the mucous layer) of the species, but cats do not have the capacity to do that process. The kidney and liver, the highest use of vitamin A in the body of most species and the cat does not produce the enzyme 15,15′-monooozasa beta-carotene that converts beta-carotene to retinol (vitamin A). To summarize: cats do not have elevated levels of this enzyme, leading to a lack of carotenoid deficiency and oxidation.
Vitamin D3 is a dietary requirement for cats because it does not have the ability to synthesize vitamin D3 from sunlight. Cats get high levels of the enzyme 7-dehydrocolestrol delta 7 reductase that causes the immediate conversion of vitamin D3 from sunlight to 7-dehydro cholesterol. This fat-soluble vitamin is needed in cats for bone formation by promoting calcium retention along with controlling nerves and muscles through the absorption of calcium and phosphorus.
Cats, like all mammals, need to obtain linoleic acid, essential fatty acids, from your diet. Most mammals can convert linoleic acid with arachidonic acid, and omega-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) through enzyme activity, but this process is very limited in cats. The enzyme disaturase Δ6 finally convert linoleic acid, which is in the form of salt linoleate, arachidonate (acid acid form of arachidonic salt) in the liver, but the enzyme is very small activity in cats. This means that arachidonic acid is fatty acids for cats, because the ability to create amounts of linoleic acid is not necessary. Arachidonic acid deficiency in cats associated with potentially growing problems, causes injury and inflammation of the skin (for example, around the mouth) decreases platelet, fatty liver, increased birth defects in kittens are queens that are deficient by during pregnancy and reproductive failure in Queens. Arachidonic acid can also metabolic eicosanoids to create respiratory responses that are needed to stimulate growth and repair mechanisms in the cat.
The nutrient chart provides a list of nutrient cats that are needed as well as the use of nutrients in the body and the effects of the deficit.
Cats have an excellent night scene and the level of light required for sightseeing can be seen at sixth except: 43 This is the result of the eyes of the cat with a lucidum tapetum, which represents no light which goes through the retina back to the eye, which increases the sensitivity of the eye on the weak light. The other adaptation to the bad witness is the big pupil of the cat’s eyes. Unlike large cats, like tigers, puppies are domestic cats. These sliding students can focus on light, light, chromatic light and, as necessary, inland dogs are much more in the eyes than large cats. At low levels of light, cat students will expand to cover most of the exposure surface of the eyes. However, domestic cats have no poor vision and there are only two types of cones (similar to most non-primate mammals), sensitivity to blue and yellow green; They have little ability to distinguish between red and green. The 1993 paper reported a response to the waveforms on a different rod system that could lead to a third cone type. However, this seems to be an adaptation to lower levels of light rather than real-thromomatic representation.
Cats have excellent hearing and can detect a wide range of frequencies. They can hear sounds more inclined than dogs or people, detecting frequencies from 55 Hz to 79,000 Hz, a range of 10.5 octaves, and people and dogs have about 9 octaves. Cats can stimulate ultrasound listening, which is important in hunting due to many species of corrosion that make ultrasound calls. However, they do not communicate using ultrasound as rodents. Cats are also sensitive and among the best mammals, and it is sharper in the 500 Hz to 32 kHz range. This sensitivity is further enhanced by large external convertible ears (your pinnae), which improves both sounds and helps with the direction of the noise.
Cats have a strong smell, partly due to their well-developed olfactory bulbs and a large surface of olfactory mucosa, about 5.8 cm2 (0.90 in2) in the area, which is almost doubled. Pheromones are sensitive to cats, such as 3-mercapto-3-methylbutan-1-ol, which they use to communicate by spraying and labeling of salmon with aromatic glands. Many cats also respond strongly to plants that contain nepetalactone, especially losses, because they can detect this substance by less than one in a billion. Approximately 70-80% of cats have nepetalactone. This response is also being produced by other plants, such as the silver vine (Actinidia polygama) and a valerian herb; This can be the result of the smell of these plants by reminding pheromone and stimulating social or sexual behaviors.
Cats have few taste buds compared to people (470 or more than 9,000 in human language). Domestic cats and wild cats are in excess of a genus that keeps their taste buds sweet because molecules of sugars are necessary so that they can not taste the sweetness. Instead, your taste buds respond to amino acids, bitter taste and acids. Jacobson’s organs are cats and many other animals lying in their mouths that allow them to smell certain scents in a way that people do not try. Cats also have a specific choice without temperature for their food, food with a temperature of about 100 ° F (38 ° C) is like killing freshly and usually refuses to make cold or chilled food (which would cause a signal No cat, the item “prey” is dead and perhaps, perhaps toxic or decomposing).
A few cats are very sensitive to touch.
To help with navigation and sensation, cats have a lot of mobile cascade (vibrissae) on their bodies, especially their faces. These provide information about the width of the gaps and the location of the materials in the dark, directly disconnecting objects and detecting airflows; They also encourage the reactions protected by blinking to protect the eyes from behind.
Most cat breeds have a remarkable taste for settling in high places, or perching. In nature, a higher place can serve as a hidden place to hunt for; Domestic cats can attack prey by piercing themselves with a perch, like a tree branch, as well as a leopard. Another possible explanation is that the height gives the cat a better observation point, allowing him to examine its territory. During a fall from a high place, a cat can reflexively twist its body and directly using its sharp sense of balance and flexibility. This is known as the cat straightening reflex. An individual cat always appropriates in the same way, as long as he has time to do it, during a fall. The necessary height for this to happen is about 90 cm (3.0 feet). Cats without a tail (for example, Manx cats) also have that ability, since a cat mainly moves the hind legs and depends on preserving angular momentum to settle down to land, and the tail is little used for that feat.